Bergstrom JC, Cordell HK. An analysis of the demand for and value of outdoor recreation in the United States. Journal of Leisure Research. 1991 Jan 1;23(1):67.
USA
---
Travel Cost Method - Zonal
$24.91
Per Person Per Day
Bowes MD, Krutilla JV. Multiple-use management: the economics of public forestlands. Routledge; 2014 Apr 4.
NH, ME
White Mountain National Forest
Travel Cost Method - Zonal
$10.13
Per Person Per Day*
Bowker JM, Starbuck CM, English DB, Bergstrom JC, Rosenburger RS, McCollum DC. Estimating the net economic value of national forest recreation: an application of the National Visitor Use Monitoring database.
USA
---
Travel Cost Method - Individual
$39.43
Per Person Per Day
Bowker JM, Starbuck CM, English DB, Bergstrom JC, Rosenburger RS, McCollum DC. Estimating the net economic value of national forest recreation: an application of the National Visitor Use Monitoring database.
TX, OK, AR, LA, MS, AL, GA, FL, KY, TN, SC, NC, VA
---
Travel Cost Method - Individual
$149.16
Per Person Per Day
Bowker JM, Starbuck CM, English DB, Bergstrom JC, Rosenburger RS, McCollum DC. Estimating the net economic value of national forest recreation: an application of the National Visitor Use Monitoring database.
MN, WI, MI, IA, MO, IL, IN, OH, WV, MD, DE, PA, RI, NJ, NY, VT, NH, MA, ME, CT
---
Travel Cost Method - Individual
$41.38
Per Person Per Day
Bowker JM, Starbuck CM, English DB, Bergstrom JC, Rosenburger RS, McCollum DC. Estimating the net economic value of national forest recreation: an application of the National Visitor Use Monitoring database.
AZ, CO, ID, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, SD, UT, WY
---
Travel Cost Method - Individual
$76.00
Per Person Per Day
Bowker JM, Starbuck CM, English DB, Bergstrom JC, Rosenburger RS, McCollum DC. Estimating the net economic value of national forest recreation: an application of the National Visitor Use Monitoring database.
CA, OR, and WA
---
Travel Cost Method - Individual
$30.87
Per Person Per Day
McCollum D, Peterson GE, Arnold JR, Markstrom D, Hellerstein D. The net economic value of recreation on the national forests: Twelve types of primary activity trips across nine Forest Service regions.
OR, WA
Willamette, Ochoco, Wallowa-Whitman, Rogue River, Wenatchee, Mt Baker-Snoqualmie
Travel Cost Method - Zonal
$24.46
Per Person Per Day
McCollum D, Peterson GE, Arnold JR, Markstrom D, Hellerstein D. The net economic value of recreation on the national forests: Twelve types of primary activity trips across nine Forest Service regions.
ID, UT WY
Payette, Targhee, Ashley, Dixie, Wasatch-Cache, Bridger-Teton
Travel Cost Method - Zonal
$17.18
Per Person Per Day
McCollum D, Peterson GE, Arnold JR, Markstrom D, Hellerstein D. The net economic value of recreation on the national forests: Twelve types of primary activity trips across nine Forest Service regions.
IN, MI, NH, OH, WI, WV
Wayne-Hoosier, Huron-Manistee, White Mountain, Nicolet, Monongahela
Travel Cost Method - Zonal
$11.90
Per Person Per Day
McCollum D, Peterson GE, Arnold JR, Markstrom D, Hellerstein D. The net economic value of recreation on the national forests: Twelve types of primary activity trips across nine Forest Service regions.
AR, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC, TN
Ozark-St Francis, NFS, Chattahoochee-Oconee, Francis Marion and Sumter, Cherokee
Travel Cost Method - Zonal
$8.98
Per Person Per Day
McCollum D, Peterson GE, Arnold JR, Markstrom D, Hellerstein D. The net economic value of recreation on the national forests: Twelve types of primary activity trips across nine Forest Service regions.
ID. MT
Nezperce, Idaho Panhandle, Custer, Flathead
Travel Cost Method - Zonal
$19.09
Per Person Per Day
McCollum D, Peterson GE, Arnold JR, Markstrom D, Hellerstein D. The net economic value of recreation on the national forests: Twelve types of primary activity trips across nine Forest Service regions.
CO, WY
White River, san Juan, Pike-San Isabel, Bighorn, Shoshone
Travel Cost Method - Zonal
$29.09
Per Person Per Day
McCollum D, Peterson GE, Arnold JR, Markstrom D, Hellerstein D. The net economic value of recreation on the national forests: Twelve types of primary activity trips across nine Forest Service regions.
AZ, NM
Apache-Sitgreaves, Tonto, Santa Fe, Gila
Travel Cost Method - Zonal
$25.65
Per Person Per Day
McCollum D, Peterson GE, Arnold JR, Markstrom D, Hellerstein D. The net economic value of recreation on the national forests: Twelve types of primary activity trips across nine Forest Service regions.
CA
Angeles, Los Padres, Sierra, Lake Tahoe Basin MU, Inyo, Klamath
Travel Cost Method - Zonal
$10.72
Per Person Per Day
McKean JR, Johnson D, Taylor RG, Johnson RL. Willingness to pay for non angler recreation at the lower Snake River reservoirs. Journal of Leisure Research. 2005 Apr 1;37(2):178.
WA
Snake River
Travel Cost Method - Individual
$22.78
Per Person Per Day*
Stevens T, More T, Allen PG. Pricing policies for public day-use outdoor recreation facilities. Journal of Environmental Management. 1989;28(1):43-52.
MA
---
Contingent Valuation Method
$5.03
Per Person Per Day
Stevens T, More T, Allen PG. Pricing policies for public day-use outdoor recreation facilities. Journal of Environmental Management. 1989;28(1):43-52.
MA
---
Contingent Valuation Method
$5.65
Per Person Per Day
Stevens T, More T, Allen PG. Pricing policies for public day-use outdoor recreation facilities. Journal of Environmental Management. 1989;28(1):43-52.
MA
---
Contingent Valuation Method
$5.03
Per Person Per Day
Stevens T, More T, Allen PG. Pricing policies for public day-use outdoor recreation facilities. Journal of Environmental Management. 1989;28(1):43-52.
MA
---
Contingent Valuation Method
$5.87
Per Person Per Day
Walsh RG, Olienyk JP. Recreation demand effects of mountain pine beetle damage to the quality of forest recreation resources in the Colorado Front Range. Department of Economics, Colorado State University; 1981.
CO
Arapahoe, Roosevelt, Pike and San Isabel National Forests
Contingent Valuation Method
$18.03
Per Person Per Day
Zawacki W, Marsinko A. Using Geographic Information Systems With Travel Cost Models: A Case Study In Proceedings of the 1999 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium, April 11-14, 1999, The Sagamore on Lake George in Bolton Landing, New York 1999 (Vol. 269, p. 287). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station.
SC
SC Parks
Travel Cost Method - Individual
$57.30
Per Person Per Day
Zawacki W, Marsinko A. Using Geographic Information Systems With Travel Cost Models: A Case Study In Proceedings of the 1999 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium, April 11-14, 1999, The Sagamore on Lake George in Bolton Landing, New York 1999 (Vol. 269, p. 287). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station.
SC
SC Parks
Travel Cost Method - Individual
$55.87
Per Person Per Day
Zawacki W, Marsinko A. Using Geographic Information Systems With Travel Cost Models: A Case Study In Proceedings of the 1999 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium, April 11-14, 1999, The Sagamore on Lake George in Bolton Landing, New York 1999 (Vol. 269, p. 287). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station.
SC
SC Parks
Travel Cost Method - Individual
$73.04
Per Person Per Day
Reference Location

Site

Ownership

Wilderness

Survey
Type

Data Year(s)

Visitor Type

Sample
Summary
Stats
Provided

Response
Rate (%)

Sample Frame

Valuation Method

Regression
Model
Provided

Sample
Size

Stated
Preference
Elicitation
Method

Stated
Preference
Payment
Vehicle

Stated
Preference
Payment Type

Revealed Preference
Substitute Price
Included
in Regression

Revealed
Preference
Observations
Truncated

Revealed Preference
Corrected for
Endogenous
Stratifaction

Revealed Preference
Cost/Mile
Used

Revealed Preference
Opportunity Cost
of Time Included
in Regression

Revealed Preference
Opportunity Cost
of Time Used

Revealed Preference
% of Wage
Rate Used

Revealed Preference
Single Destination
Trips Only

Revealed Preference
Primary Purpose
Visitors Only

Group
Size

Days
per Trip

Economic Value Estimate(2016)

Units

USA

---

Public Land - Mixed

---

In-person

1987

Residents and Non-residents

No

81.25

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Zonal

Yes

2883

---

---

---

Yes

No

No

---

Yes

Wage Rate

50

Yes

Yes

---

---

$24.91

Per Person Per Day

NH, ME

White Mountain National Forest

Public Land - National Forest

---

---

1981

Residents and Non-residents

No

53.7

Use list

Travel Cost Method - Zonal

Yes

191

---

---

---

No

No

No

0.2

No

---

---

---

---

3

3.44

$10.13

Per Person Per Day*

USA

---

Public Land - National Forest

---

In-person

2003

Residents and Non-residents

Yes

---

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Individual

Yes

2173

---

---

---

No

Yes

Yes

0.12

No

Wage Rate

---

Yes

Yes

2.72

1.39

$39.43

Per Person Per Day

TX, OK, AR, LA, MS, AL, GA, FL, KY, TN, SC, NC, VA

---

Public Land - National Forest

---

In-person

2003

Residents and Non-residents

Yes

---

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Individual

Yes

2173

---

---

---

No

Yes

Yes

0.12

No

Wage Rate

---

Yes

Yes

2.72

1.39

$149.16

Per Person Per Day

MN, WI, MI, IA, MO, IL, IN, OH, WV, MD, DE, PA, RI, NJ, NY, VT, NH, MA, ME, CT

---

Public Land - National Forest

---

In-person

2003

Residents and Non-residents

Yes

---

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Individual

Yes

2173

---

---

---

No

Yes

Yes

0.12

No

Wage Rate

---

Yes

Yes

2.72

1.39

$41.38

Per Person Per Day

AZ, CO, ID, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, SD, UT, WY

---

Public Land - National Forest

---

In-person

2003

Residents and Non-residents

Yes

---

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Individual

Yes

2173

---

---

---

No

Yes

Yes

0.12

No

Wage Rate

---

Yes

Yes

2.72

1.39

$76.00

Per Person Per Day

CA, OR, and WA

---

Public Land - National Forest

---

In-person

2003

Residents and Non-residents

Yes

---

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Individual

Yes

2173

---

---

---

No

Yes

Yes

0.12

No

Wage Rate

---

Yes

Yes

2.72

1.39

$30.87

Per Person Per Day

OR, WA

Willamette, Ochoco, Wallowa-Whitman, Rogue River, ...

Public Land - National Forest

---

In-person

1986

Residents and Non-residents

No

90

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Zonal

Yes

56

---

---

---

Yes

No

No

0.13

Yes

Wage Rate

30

Yes

Yes

3.25

1.14

$24.46

Per Person Per Day

ID, UT WY

Payette, Targhee, Ashley, Dixie, Wasatch-Cache, Br...

Public Land - National Forest

---

In-person

1986

Residents and Non-residents

No

90

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Zonal

Yes

65

---

---

---

Yes

No

No

0.13

Yes

Wage Rate

30

Yes

Yes

3.85

2.47

$17.18

Per Person Per Day

IN, MI, NH, OH, WI, WV

Wayne-Hoosier, Huron-Manistee, White Mountain, Nic...

Public Land - National Forest

---

In-person

1986

Residents and Non-residents

No

90

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Zonal

Yes

29

---

---

---

Yes

No

No

0.13

Yes

Wage Rate

30

Yes

Yes

2.88

3.44

$11.90

Per Person Per Day

AR, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC, TN

Ozark-St Francis, NFS, Chattahoochee-Oconee, Franc...

Public Land - National Forest

---

In-person

1986

Residents and Non-residents

No

90

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Zonal

Yes

67

---

---

---

Yes

No

No

0.13

Yes

Wage Rate

30

Yes

Yes

2.79

3.22

$8.98

Per Person Per Day

ID. MT

Nezperce, Idaho Panhandle, Custer, Flathead

Public Land - National Forest

---

In-person

1986

Residents and Non-residents

No

90

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Zonal

Yes

65

---

---

---

Yes

No

No

0.13

Yes

Wage Rate

30

Yes

Yes

3.4

2.56

$19.09

Per Person Per Day

CO, WY

White River, san Juan, Pike-San Isabel, Bighorn, S...

Public Land - National Forest

---

In-person

1986

Residents and Non-residents

No

90

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Zonal

Yes

65

---

---

---

Yes

No

No

0.13

Yes

Wage Rate

30

Yes

Yes

3.15

1.91

$29.09

Per Person Per Day

AZ, NM

Apache-Sitgreaves, Tonto, Santa Fe, Gila

Public Land - National Forest

---

In-person

1986

Residents and Non-residents

No

90

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Zonal

Yes

65

---

---

---

Yes

No

No

0.13

Yes

Wage Rate

30

Yes

Yes

3.83

1.82

$25.65

Per Person Per Day

CA

Angeles, Los Padres, Sierra, Lake Tahoe Basin MU, ...

Public Land - National Forest

---

In-person

1986

Residents and Non-residents

No

90

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Zonal

Yes

56

---

---

---

Yes

No

No

0.13

Yes

Wage Rate

30

Yes

Yes

3.53

2.61

$10.72

Per Person Per Day

WA

Snake River

Public Land - Other

---

Mail

1998

Residents and Non-residents

No

66.5

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Individual

Yes

107

---

---

---

No

Yes

Yes

0.197

No

---

---

Both

Both

2.21

2.42

$22.78

Per Person Per Day*

MA

---

Public Land - State Park

---

Mail

1984

Residents

No

50

On-site

Contingent Valuation Method

Yes

---

Open-ended

Access Fee

Per use

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

5.07

1

$5.03

Per Person Per Day

MA

---

Public Land - State Park

---

Mail

1984

Residents

No

50

On-site

Contingent Valuation Method

Yes

---

Open-ended

Access Fee

Per use

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

5.54

1

$5.65

Per Person Per Day

MA

---

Public Land - State Park

---

Mail

1984

Residents

No

50

On-site

Contingent Valuation Method

Yes

---

Open-ended

Access Fee

Per use

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

5.68

1

$5.03

Per Person Per Day

MA

---

Public Land - State Park

---

Mail

1984

Residents

No

50

On-site

Contingent Valuation Method

Yes

---

Open-ended

Access Fee

Per use

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

4

1

$5.87

Per Person Per Day

CO

Arapahoe, Roosevelt, Pike and San Isabel National ...

Public Land - National Forest

---

In-person

1980

Residents and Non-residents

Yes

---

On-site

Contingent Valuation Method

Yes

183

Iterative Bidding

Trip Cost

Per use

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

2.37

$18.03

Per Person Per Day

SC

SC Parks

Public Land - Mixed

---

In-person

---

Residents

No

---

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Individual

No

---

---

---

---

No

Yes

No

0.1

Yes

Wage Rate

33

Unspecified

Unspecified

---

---

$57.30

Per Person Per Day

SC

SC Parks

Public Land - Mixed

---

In-person

---

Residents

No

---

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Individual

Yes

---

---

---

---

No

Yes

No

0.1

Yes

Wage Rate

33

Unspecified

Unspecified

---

---

$55.87

Per Person Per Day

SC

SC Parks

Public Land - Mixed

---

In-person

---

Residents

No

---

On-site

Travel Cost Method - Individual

No

---

---

---

---

No

Yes

No

0.1

Yes

Wage Rate

33

Unspecified

Unspecified

---

---

$73.04

Per Person Per Day

Average Values

Regions
Picnicing Averages - Activity Detail
Region Observations Average Value
(per person per day, 2016 dollars)
Minimum Value Maximum Value
Alaska --- ---   ---   ---  
Intermountain 6 $30.84 $18.03 $75.99
Multiple Areas 2 $32.17 $24.91 $39.43
Northeast 7 $12.14 $5.03 $41.38
Pacific Coast 4 $22.20 $10.72 $30.86
Southeast 5 $68.86 $8.98 $149.14
Total Sample 24 $31.98 $5.03 $149.14

* Converted from original units

Application version: 3.0.0